Abstract: Nanofabrication techniques have given researchers the ability to consistently produce sub 100 nm structures on a wide range of substrates for many different applications. However, for many of these applications, the fabrication of simple nanostructures on a substrate is not enough and further steps, such as an additional organic chemical reaction are required. Because of this, it is still a major goal in nanofabrication research to unite top-down methods (e.g. photolithography) with bottom-up techniques (e.g. chemical assembly). Our aim in Sheffield is to try to solve this by using near-field techniques to photochemically manipulate surfaces on the nanoscale. In this talk I will give a brief introduction to scanning near-field photolithography and how it is used as a nanofabrication technique as well as how we use it to make polymeric and biological nanostructures.